This page of Cofactors, Antioxidants, & Phytonutrients, is a continuation of the Nutrients page which has dosing details for vitamins and minerals. The links lead to food sources and other information about the nutrient.
Cofactors, also called coenzymes, are chemicals used in addition to essential nutrients in our metabolic pathways - like an assembly line of production steps, chemicals are built or broken down with enzyme steps. cofactors help the enzyme in some way. Sometimes many steps are needed to make a chemical - so getting some of the chemical in our food can help save our body time and energy as well as the more basic building blocks that might be needed for the assembly line. Nucleotides take 14 steps
Coenzyme Q10 is known as statin medications interfere with the production of it & lead to side effects of muscle & joint pain. Glyphosate may also be interfering with our own production of CoQ10. Mitochondria use CoQ10 in the Citric Acid Cycle. We make less CoQ10 starting around age 40, so supplements may help older adults, but too much is not good. It is an antioxidant - excess can cause auto-oxidation. Ascites, fluid retention around heart, may be a severe symptom of deficiency. (ref) (lpi.edu
Alpha-lipoic acid is also an antioxidant used in the Citric Acid Cycle by mitochondria. It can be taken as a supplement, 200 mg capsules are typically available for purchase. Diabetic neuropathy may be helped by higher doses, 600-1800 mg. (ref) Lipoic acid is an antioxidant for our other antioxidants, glutathione, vitamin C, and CoQ10. It helps restore them to an unoxidized state so they can be reused as antioxidants. *600 mg helped as much as 1800 mg in one DM neuropathy study. (lpi.edu)
Glutathione is also an antioxidant that we make for ourselves, and which is used in the Citric Acid Cycle by mitochondria. It is available as a supplement, & other foods or nutrients can help promote our production of it, including Milk thistle, NAC, & SOD, (ref), Nrf2. Diabetic patients were helped with 500 mg supplements over 6 months, HbA1C levels were improved. (preprint) Increase to several times per day if a higher dose is desired, 65 mg/Kg was used, in a divided 3/day dose, CF. (ref)
Acetyl-CoA is ancient, early life on earth, chemistry, that turns CO2 into other slightly larger chemicals - "formate, acetate, and pyruvate from H2 and CO2 ". (ref) CoA is needed in the Citric Acid Cycle within mitochondria. Promotion of acetyl Co-A production helped cognition (in mice). (ref) Mixed product for humans includes: "Calcium Pyruvate , Pantethine Powder , Dimagnesium Malate , Acetyl L-carnitine Hcl , L-Cysteine HCI " (product/*unaffiliated)
Free amino acids - free from being part of a longer protein - often have roles to play within chemical reactions or in the control of receptors and ion channels on cell membranes. the cell membrane is like the wall of our house and it has doorways with a door bell - roughly. Amino acids may help ring the door bell to open the door, or may help keep the door locked from the inside.
L-carnitine is used as a weight lifting supplement and has been found helpful for promoting muscle gain. (ref) Carnitine is a cofactor in the Citric Acid Cycle in mitochondria, so it is needed for optimal energy production. Supplements of L-cysteine may be less absorbed then Acetyl-L-Cysteine is or from protein foods in the diet. (lpi.edu)
Cysteine is a cofactor within the Citric Acid Cycle of mitochondria. Cysteine may help angina pain of CVD, cancer, autoimmune conditions, infertility, and it has shown respiratory and antiviral benefits. (ref)
Carnitine is made from lysine &within our body. "Lysine appears to help the body absorb calcium, and it plays an important role in the formation of collagen, a substance important for bones and connective tissues including skin, tendons, and cartilage." (ref) Extracellular matrix proteins help with immune defense. Vegan eaters may get too much arginine in ratio to lysine for good immune function. (ref) Soy, beans, peas, & lentils are a better source of lysine than nuts & seeds, in a vegan diet.
Carnosine is not carnitine or a typo. "Carnosine is made from alanine and histidine." (ref) It is important in immune function & within the brain also, adequate protein in the diet is helpful to make it. Carnosine can help control copper & zinc excess in the brain or body, & has "...potential to maintain telomere length  and delay cellular senescence. " (ref) Carnosine may help prevent Alzheimer's and cataracts, and promote wound healing. (ref)
In chemistry, inorganic chemistry came first. Organic chemistry, the chemicals of life, are both simpler and more complex then inorganic chemistry. A smaller variety of atoms are used in biology - we are carbon and water based life forms, but the proteins and other chemicals made from those types of atoms can be very large and complex compared to the chemical reactions of a water softener. Cofactors generally are considered to include a metallic ion with an electric charge to stabilize or cataly
"The cell is equipped with myriad antioxidant enzyme systems to combat deleterious ROS production in mitochondria, with the mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme MnSOD acting as the chief ROS scavenging enzyme in the cell." (ref) (ref) CoQ10 supplements promoted SOD in animal-based studies. (ref) Cruciferous veg, retinoic acid, & vit E may promote SOD. Low levels of MnSOD are linked to cancer, risk worse with low vit C, E, & produce intake. (ref) Baicalein promotes Nrf2 which promotes MnSOD. (ref)
Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.
Jennifer Depew, R.D.
Copyright © 2020 Jennifer Depew, R - All Rights Reserved.
Powered by GoDaddy Website Builder